Mindanao ( min-də-NOW) is the second largest and southernmost major island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country (the other two being Luzon and the Visayas), consisting of the island of Mindanao and smaller outlying islands. Davao City is the largest city in Mindanao. As of the 2010 census, the island's population itself is 20,281,545 people, while the Mindanao island group has 21,968,174 inhabitants.
Parts of south-western Mindanao island group, particularly the provinces of Maguindanao, Basilan, Lanao del Sur, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi (part of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)), are home to a sizeable Muslim population, making the island group, along with Palawan, the only area of the Philippines with a significant Muslim presence. Due to widespread poverty and religious differences, the island has seen a communist insurgency as well as armed Moro separatist movements.
Mindanao is considered the food basket of the Philippines. Eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines come from here. Mindanao is also dubbed with the moniker as The Philippines' Land of Promise.